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The Evolution of Ethical Care: From Therapy to Research

The Evolution of Ethical Care: From Therapy to Research
A research Study made by Joseph, published at www.arjonline.org
For the majority of human history, practicing medicine has been guided by ethical codes shaped according to social customs. Research, on the other hand, has been left unaddressed for centuries without rules or regulations resulting in the abuse of countless vulnerable individuals. However, the horrors displayed in the past century, especially in Nuremberg and Tuskegee, could be ignored no longer, as the world public and not just physicians addressed the ethics of care. Present in countless codes and guidelines regulating therapeutic care, the fundamental thread of beneficence was reemphasized and resulted in the transition from paternalism to a new found respect for autonomy. With this paradigm shift came a boom in ethical concern around the world, providing protection for the vulnerable members of our globalized society.
The advancement of medicine toward enhancing human health requires the participation of individuals in research. Despite the opposition to such research, two arguments have flourished in justifying the use of humans in clinical research. First, “human research appeals to the principle of beneficence” because the individual harms of participating in a study are outweighed by the potential societal benefits. However, as we shall, the nature and magnitude of individual harms varies significantly depending on the researcher’s ethic. Second, continued human involvement in research appeals to the principle of justice. “Every person currently alive is the beneficiary of earlier human subjects‟ involvement in research.” For example, those who participated in experimental trails in the development of antibiotics, the Polio vaccine, etc., have directly benefited the human condition. Therefore, a concern for justice requires continued individual involvement in research for the betterment of society.3 Appealing to arguments of beneficence and justice, human involvement in clinical research is vindicated; however, as the historical accounts will show, the nature of the study cannot sacrifice an individual‟s autonomy.
Research as it pertains to humans has complemented and enhanced scientific exploration for centuries. However, a general disregard for those being experimented on went unnoticed and consumed the researchers for the majority of that time. Throughout the past century various publicized injustices have resulted in today‟s growing concern for autonomy and ethical medical treatment, giving rise to various international bioethical boards and setting the standard of care for all humans.
Read on his research paper on The Evolution of Ethical Care: From Therapy to Research (https://www.arjonline.org/papers/arjms/v1-i3/3.pdf) at ARJ online (American Research Journals Online).
American Research Journals (ARJ) is an online, international Open Access Journal publishing house. We are at the fore-front of publishing academic, scholarly research articles of superior excellence. We strive hard to meet the demand for quality research articles on the open access platform. We have a wide range of Medical Journals, Agricultural, Arts, Humanities, Engineering and Science Journals to publish relevant scientific, peer-reviewed content.

American Research Journals (ARJ) is an online, international Open Access Journal publishing house. We are at the fore-front of publishing academic, scholarly research articles of superior excellence. We strive hard to meet the demand for quality research articles on the open access platform. We have a wide range of Medical Journals, Agricultural, Arts, Humanities, Engineering and Science Journals to publish relevant scientific, peer-reviewed content.

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